Biology

Objectives:

Develop competency in practical techniques (planning, implementing, analysing & evaluating)

Develop mathematical skills in the context of A level biology

Understand the structure and function of cells, organelles and biological molecules

Understand the structures & mechanisms of exchange surfaces in different organisms

Understand how organisms respond to pathogens

Understand how variation has led to the evolution of life on Earth

Year

Year 12

Term

Autumn

Spring

Summer

Unit

Practical skills in biology

Foundations in biology

Practical skills in biology

Foundations in biology

Practical skills in biology

Foundations in biology

Exchange & transport

Practical skills in biology

Exchange & transport

Biodiversity, evolution & disease

Practical skills in biology

Biodiversity, evolution & disease

Practical skills in biology

Communication & homeostasis

Time

7 weeks

7 weeks

5 weeks

6 weeks

6 weeks

7 weeks

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Biological molecules

Structure, function and tests for:

Carbohydrates

Proteins

Lipids

Water

PAG 9 (Tests for starch, proteins, lipids, reducing & non-reducing sugars

Cell structure

Structure and function of:

Cell membranes

Cell organelles

Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic cells:

Similarities and differences

PAG 1 (Use of light microscope, graticule & production of biological drawings)

Nucleotides & nucleic acids

Structure and function of:

Nucleic acids

Polynucleotides

Phosphorylated nucleotides ( ATP, ADP and NAD)

PAG10 (Computer modelling of DNA structure)

Genetic code:

DNA replication

Protein synthesis and the role of organelles in their production & secretion

PAG 9 (Purification of DNA)

Cell cycle:

Control, stages, regulation & significance of mitosis & meiosis

PAG 1 (Use of light microscopes to observe mitotic division)

Enzymes:

Structure

Mechanisms of action

Effects of pH, temperature, concentration

Inhibitors

Coenzymes, Cofactors & prosthetic groups

PAG 4 (Factors affecting the rates of enzyme controlled reactions)

Exchange surfaces & breathing:

Structure & function of mammalian, fish & insect gaseous exchange systems

Lung volume measurement

PAG 2 (Dissection and drawing of fish gas exchange system)

Transport in plants:

Structure & function of plant transport tissues

Transport of water and sugars

PAG 2 (Dissection and drawing of plant transport tissues)

PAG 5 (Use of potometer to measure water uptake)

Transport in animals

Circulatory systems:

Types of circulatory systems

Structure & functions of blood vessels

Carriage of O2, CO2 & the Bohr effect

Formation of tissue fluid

The heart:

External & internal  structure

Control of the cardiac cycle

PAG 2 (Dissection and drawing of mammalian heart)

Communicable disease:

Types of pathogen

Modes of transmission

Defences against pathogens:

Plant

Primary & non-specific

Phagocytes

Immune response

Structure & function of antibodies

Immunity

Drug development

PAG 1 (Use of light microscopes to examine and draw blood cells)

Biodiversity:

Sampling & calculating biodiversity

Conservation

PAG 3 (Sampling techniques, Simpson’s index & biodiversity calculations)

Classification:

Binomial naming system

Taxonomic hierarchy

3 domain system

Evolution:

Types of variation

Statistical tests

Adaptation to environment

Mechanism of natural selection

Evidence for theory of evolution

Impact of evolution in some species on humans

Communication:

Cell signalling

Temperature control in endotherms & ectotherms

Organisation of mammalian nervous system

Structure and function of receptors, neurones & synapses

The reflex arc


Objectives:

Describe explain and apply plant and animal communication systems and their effects.

Explain how blood sugar and blood water potential are controlled within mammals

Describe and explain the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis and respiration

Explain how genes are controlled and regulated

Explain the different techniques used to manipulate genomes and evaluate the ethical considerations linked to them

Explain and evaluate modern cloning and biotechnology techniques and uses including the ethical considerations.

Analyse the dynamics and the interaction between populations within ecosystems


Year

Year 13

Term

Autumn

Spring

 

Unit

Unit 5 Communication, Homeostasis and Energy

Unit 6 Genetics, evolution and ecosystems

 

Time

7 weeks

7 weeks

1

5 weeks

6 weeks

3 weeks

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Hormonal communication

Endocrine communication

Hormones

Mechanism of action

Structure of glands

Control of blood glucose

Stucture of the Pancreas including microscope drawings

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Treatment of diabetes

PAG 1 (Use of light microscope, graticule and production of biological drawings to identify cells)

Animal responses

Structure and function of adrenal gland

Hormonal and nervous effect on heart rate

Fight or flight response

Structure and control of mammalian muscle tissue

PAG 11 Investigation into the effect of exercise on pulse rate

Plant responses and hormones

Tropism

Types and roles of plant hormones

Commercial use of plant hormones

PAG 11 Practical investigation into phototropism

Excretion

Role of excretion in homeostasis

Structure, function and histology of the liver

Structure, function and histology of the kidney

Control of blood water potential

Effect of Kidney failure and it’s treatment

Photosynthesis

Structure and function of chloroplasts

Photosynthetic pigments

PAG 6 Chromatography of photosynthetic pigments

Light-dependent stage of photosynthesis

Light-independent stage of photosynthesis

Practical investigations of factors affecting rate of photosynthesis   

PAG 12 Investigating the rate of oxygen production by pond weed

Aerobic respiration

Structure of mitochondrion

Glycolisis

Link reaction

Kreb cycle

Oxidative phosphorylation

Anaerobic respiration

Lactate fermentation in mammals

Alcohol fermentation in yeast

Benefits

Practical investigation into respiration rates in yeast

Energy in food

Relative energy values of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins

Use and interpretation of the respiratory quotient

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Patterns of inheritance

Causes of variation

Use of genetic diagrams for; monogenic, dihybrid, multiple, alleles, sex linkage, codominance

Factors that affect evolution of a species

Hardy- Weinberg principle

Artificial selection

Cellular control

Types of mutation

Regulation (transcription factors)

Homeobox gene sequences

Hox genes

Role of mitosis and apoptosis in controlling body form development

Identifying epistasis, autosomal and sex linkage from phenotypic ratios

Cloning

Natural clones in plants and animals

Artificial clones of plants (cuttings, micropropagation, tissue culture)

Artificial clones of animals(embryo twinning, adult cell cloning)

Evaluation of use of clones

Arguments for and against cloning

Manipulating genomes

Principles, techniques and uses of DNA sequencing

Principles and uses of DNA profiling

Polymerase chain reaction and DNA analysis

Electrophoresis

Principles and techniques of genetic engineering

Gene therapy

Ethical issues regarding gene manipulation

Use of microbes in biotechnology

Food production

Culturing microbes (aseptic techniques, growth curve)

PAG 7 Investigation into the factors affecting the growth of microbes

Ecosystem dynamics

Abiotic and biotic factors

Transfer of biomass

Nitrogen cycle

Carbon cycle

Primary succession

Measuring distribution and abundance of organisms

Populations and sustainability

Factors that affect population size

Interactions between populations (predator prey, intra and inter specific competition

Conservation and preservation

Ecosystem management

Management of environmental resources and impact of humans.

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